Tag: Heartworm

19 Oct 10

When first choosing a puppy it is important to choose one that appears healthy.  If it is from a pet shop. it should have a proper vet’s vaccination certificate.


It should have no signs of coughing or sneezing, no eye or nose discharge and there should be no signs of hair loss or redness of the skin.  It should be bright alert and playful.  You may be able to ask Green Cross to check the puppy for before you purchase.


Once the puppy has been purchased and introduced to it’s new environment, such as your home, it will be under a great deal of stress.  It will require time to adjust and will require a lot of your time and attention.  Do not wash the puppy at this time as this will cause further stress and increase it’s chances of contracting one of the many transmissible diseases.

可以請獸醫代你檢查牠的健情況.  你買了一隻小狗後,把牠帶到一個新環境,例如住進你的家,小狗通常都會感到很緊張,需要一段時間去適應,也需要你多用時間去陪牠.在這個時期不要替牠洗澡,因為這樣做會令小狗更緊張,而且也會增加牠感染傳染性疾病的機會.

It is important to realize that if the puppy has already contracted a transmissible disease the disease may not appear at the time of your purchase of the pet.  Sometimes the disease may be in a transient state and may only surface a few weeks later.  It is important the the puppy is kept well fed and kept in a comfortable environment to allow the puppies own immune system to develop well.  The puppies immune system is a key factor in avoiding and fighting potentially fatal diseases.




The puppy will be exposed to diseases that are spread in the air, by contract with other dogs and also by contaminants such as saliva and faeces.  The puppy should be confined in your house and kept away from other dogs and away from other areas where other dogs have been.  It should only be released from this confinement once the necessary vaccinations have been given.  This must be done by a qualified veterinarian registered with the Agriculture, Fisheries and Conversation Department.



已在香港漁農自然護理署登記,合格獸醫主持.  在香港狗隻常會感染到的疾病有:

Parvovirus 腸炎

Often fatal.  Signs to look for include severe diarrhoea with blood and vomiting.  Especially serious in breeds such as Rottweilers and Dobermanns.  Death can result within 48-72 hours if not treated immediately.  It is transmitted by faeces, indirect faecally contaminated shoes and kennels as well as direct contact.  Puppies from unvaccinated mothers have a higher chance of contracting the disease.





Distemper 狗瘟

A frequently fatal disease spread by inhalation, usually in dogs less than one year old.  Watery/mucoid  discharge from the nose and eyes, vomiting and diarrhoea (sometimes blood).  Later nervous signs can appear such as twitching of muscles and convulsions.



Infectious Canine Hepatitis 傳染性犬肝炎(犬線病毒第一類)

Excreted in saliva, faeces and urine.  Ingestion is the most likely source; may only be general malaise or loss of appetite, fever or sudden collapse, pale gums, corneal oedema “blue eye”



Kennel Cough (CAV2/Parainfluenza) 狗房咳(CAV2)

Usually pup is still bright and alert and eating well.  Transmission from other dogs by inhalation; soft dry cough which can worsen with some watery mucous discharge.  If not treated can develop severe pneumonia with fever which may lead to death.

染病的小狗一般仍會活潑機警,胃口良好.通常經空氣由其他狗隻傳染.病徵包括輕咳嗽,有鼻水或者有鼻涕流出.如果不加治理,會演變成肺炎 發熱,至終可能致命.


Leptospirosis 鉤端螺旋體病

Infection often from contaminated urine.  Sudden onset of fever, jaundice and extreme depression; may show vomiting, thirst and blood stained diarrhoea.  Mucous membranes may have small hemorrhages.

通常由受到有病菌的尿液傳播.受到感染後,會突然發熱 出黃疸和情緒極度低落,有時會有嘔吐,口渴,腹瀉(便中有血).



Rabies 狂犬病

It is a legal requirement for all dogs to be inoculated against rabies as it is a zoonosis, which means it is transmissible to humans.  It is fatal once signs appear.




Heartworm 犬心蟲(心絲蟲)

A parasite that lives inside the dogs blood vessels and heart.  Preventative treatment is available.  For more information go here.

犬心蟲為一種寄生蟲,由蚊蟲傳播,寄居於狗隻的血管和心臟內,有效的預防方法可. 往這裡


19 Oct 10

This is a disease of growing importance for all dog owners in Hong Kong.  Due to the increase mobility of dogs with their owners, especially in a cosmopolitan place such as Hong Kong, the incidence of canine Heartworm disease is on the increase.  All it takes for an infection to occur is the presence of an already infected dog and the transmitter of the disease, the mosquito.

這種致命的病在香港日漸普遍,本地的狗主應該多加注意.在香港這樣的大城市,狗隻經常都要隨著主人搬家,染上這種病的個案日增.  狗隻染上這種病並不困難,只要附近有一隻已經受感染的狗,和有蚊蟲出沒就可以了.

Life Cycle of the Canine Heartworm 犬心蟲的生命循環週期

1. Adult male and female heartworms are usually found in the lung arteries and the right hand side of the heart.  The female will produce first stage larvae or microfilariae into the bloodstream.  These 1st stage microfilariae are ingested by the mosquito when it takes a blood meal.


2. The 1st stage microfilariae will develop into 2nd and then 3rd stage microfilariae in the mosquito within the first 8-17 days.

3. When the mosquito feeds on another dog it will pass the 3rd stage microfilariae into the bloodstream, thereby infecting the new dog.


4. The 3rd stage microfilariae in the dog continues developing for 3-4 months prior to reaching their final destination, the heart.


5. Once in the heart the young heartworms develop into full adults and the females will start producing more infective 1st stage microfilariae in 5-6 months.

5)青年期的犬心蟲一旦抵達狗隻的心臟,即發育成成蟲.五六個月後,雌性犬心蟲會產下第一期的微絲蚴, 這樣又開始另一個感染循環.

Clinical Symptoms 臨床病徵

The earliest signs of canine Heartworm disease include coughing, laboured breathing, weakness and increasing exercise intolerance.  Due to the presence if the adult heartworms in the right ventricle and pulmonary arteries of the heart, there is an increase resistance to the flow of blood, thereby causing the blood pooling in the liver and spleen.  If there is a high count of adult heartworms the dog may develop congestive heart failure.


Diagnosis 診斷

A diagnosis can be based on an examination of blood sample microscopically.  Confirmation is usually done with the use of an antigen test using a fresh blood sample.


Treatment/Prevention 治療

The best treatment is to prevent the infection in the first place. The most common treatments include a monthly oral treatments or yearly injectable treatment. 

最佳的治療方法是預防. 常用的預防方法包括每月一次的口服預防藥物或每年一次的心絲蟲預防針。

If the dog already has an established colony of adult heartworm, treatment can be quite risky, time consuming and relatively expensive.  Treatment involves treatment with drugs which could potentially cause adverse reactions.  Fatalities are possible if the patient is very sick.

如果狗隻體內已有犬心蟲成蟲群,治療的過程就會頗危險,而且需要花上很長的時間,費用很昂貴. 治療犬心蟲用的藥有可能會引起副作用.嚴重染病的狗隻甚至會死亡.